百老汇游戏平台网址|诚信|TOP

    <track id="8f9gg"></track>

    1. <pre id="8f9gg"><ruby id="8f9gg"></ruby></pre>
      <table id="8f9gg"><ruby id="8f9gg"></ruby></table>
      <pre id="8f9gg"><label id="8f9gg"><menu id="8f9gg"></menu></label></pre>

    2. Home | About | Contact
      Africa
      AFRICA
      Algeria
      Angola
      Benin
      Botswana
      Burkina Faso
      Burundi
      Cameroon
      Cape Verde
      Central African Republic
      Chad
      Comoros
      Congo
      Cote d'ivoire
      Djibouti
      Egypt
      Equatorial Guinea
      Eritrea
      Ethiopia
      Gabon
      Gambia
      Ghana
      Guinea
      Guinea-Bissau
      Kenya
      Lesotho
      Liberia
      Libya
      Madagascar
      Malawi
      Mali
      Mauritania
      Mauritius
      Morocco
      Mozambique
      Namibia
      Niger
      Nigeria
      Reunion
      Rwanda
      Sao Tome and Principe
      Senegal
      Seychelles
      Sierra Leone
      Somalia
      South Africa
      Sudan
      Swaziland
      Tanzania
      Togo
      Tunisia
      Uganda
      Western Sahara
      Zambia
      Zimbabwe
      Asia
      ASIA
      Bangladesh
      Bhutan
      Brunei
      Cambodia
      China
      Hong Kong
      India
      Indonesia
      Japan
      Kazakhstan
      Korea
      Laos
      Malaysia
      Maldives
      Mongolia
      Myanmar
      Nepal
      Pakistan
      Philippines
      Singapore
      Sri Lanka
      Taiwan
      Thailand
      Vietnam
      Europe
      EUROPE
      Albania
      Andorra
      Armenia
      Austria
      Azerbaijan
      Belarus
      Belgium
      Bosnia-Herzegovena
      Bulgaria
      Croatia
      Cyprus
      Czech Republic
      Denmark
      Estonia
      Finland
      France
      Georgia
      Germany
      Gibraltar
      Greece
      Hungary
      Iceland
      Ireland
      Italy
      Latvia
      Liechtenstein
      Lithuania
      Luxembourg
      Macedonia
      Malta
      Moldova
      Monaco
      Netherlands
      Norway
      Poland
      Portugal
      Romania
      Russia
      San Marino
      Serbia and Montenegro
      Slovakia
      Slovenia
      Spain
      Sweden
      Switzerland
      Turkey
      Ukraine
      United Kingdom
      Australia & New Zealand
      Australia
      New Zealand
      North America
      Canada
      United States of America
      Central America & Carribbean
      CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARRIBBEAN
      Antigua and Barbadu
      Bahamas
      Barbados
      Belize
      Costa Rica
      Cuba
      Dominica
      Dominican Republic
      El Salvador
      Grenada
      Guatemala
      Haiti
      Honduras
      Jamaica
      Nicaragua
      Panama
      Saint Kitts and Nevis
      Saint Lucia
      Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
      Trinidad and Tobago
      South America
      SOUTH AMERICA
      Argentina
      Belize
      Bolivia
      Brazil
      Chile
      Columbia
      Ecuador
      Guyana
      Paraguay
      Peru
      Suriname
      Uruguay
      Venezuela
      Middle East
      MIDDLE EAST
      Afghanistan
      Bahrain
      Iran
      Iraq
      Israel
      Jordan
      Kuwait
      Kyrgyztan
      Lebanon
      Oman
      Qatar
      Saudi Arabia
      Syria
      Tajikistan
      Turkmenistan
      United Arab Emirates
      Uzbekistan
      Alphabetical listing
      - A -
      - B -
      - C -
      - D -
      - E -
      - F -
      - G -
      - H -
      - I -
      - J -
      - K -
      - L -
      - M -
      - N -
      - O -
      - P -
      - Q -
      - R -
      - S -
      - T -
      - U -
      - V -
      - W -
      - Y -
      - Z -

       

       

      EUROPE
      You are here: Europe > Italy

      Italy

      General background information

      General background information including politics, international relations and economic overview.

      Diplomatic and trade Representation
      Links to diplomatic sites and trade representation for this country
      Fact sheets
      Links to sites that offer short profiles of this country
      Guides
      Links to sites that provide more detailed information and background on this country
      Statistics
      Links to sites that provide statistical data on this country
      Business and trade
      Links to business, trade and industry information
      News
      Links to news, newspapers and other publications
      Government
      Links to government information and sites
      Industry
      Links to various industry sector
      Transport
      Links to information on transport and organisations to do with transport
      Reference
      Links to reference information
      Travel
      Links to travel information for the business person

      Rome
      The Colloseum in Rome

      Italian Republic
      Repubblica Italiana

      Flag of Italy

      Coat of arms of Italy

      Flag

      Coat of Arms

      Location of Italy

      Capital (and largest city)  

      Rome
      48°12′N, 16°21′E

      Official language  

      Italian

      Government  

      Parliamentary Republic

      Area

       Total  

      301,338 km² (71st)
      116,346.5 sq mi

       Water (%)  

      2.4

      Population

       2008 estimate  

      59,905,225 (23rd)

       2001 census  

      57,110,144

       Density  

      198.8 /km² (54th)
      511.7 /sq mi

      GDP (nominal)  

      2007 estimate

       Total  

      $1,787.5 trillion (10th)

       Per capita  

      $30,365 (27th)

      Human Development Index  (2005)  

      0.941 (high) (19th)

      Currency  

      Euro () (EUR)

      Hours ahead (+) or behind (-) SA:  

      -1

      Internet TLD  

      .it

      Calling code  

      +039

      ISO code  

      IT

      Background

      Italy, officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana), is a country located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe and on the two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily and Sardinia. Italy shares its northern, Alpine boundary with France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. The independent states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within the Italian Peninsula, and Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland.

      Italy has been the home of many European cultures, such as the Etruscans and the Romans, and later was the birthplace of the university and of the Renaissance, that began in Tuscany and spread all over Europe. Italy's capital, Rome, was for centuries the center of Western civilization. Italy possessed a colonial empire from the second half of the nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century.

      Today, Italy is a democratic republic and a developed country with the eighth-highest quality-of-life index rating in the world.[4] It is a founding member of what is now the European Union, having signed the Treaty of Rome in 1957, and it is a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It is a member of the G8, having the world's seventh-largest nominal GDP, and is also a member state of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Council of Europe, the Western European Union, and the Central European Initiative. Italy is a Schengen state. It has the world's seventh-largest defence budget and shares NATO's nuclear weapons. On 1 January 2007, Italy began a two-year term as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.

      Politics

      The politics of Italy take place in a framework of a parliamentary, democratic republic, and of a multi-party system.

      The President of the Italian Republic (Presidente della Repubblica) is elected for seven years by the parliament sitting jointly with a small number of regional delegates. As the head of state, the President of the Republic represents the unity of the nation and has many of the duties previously given to the King of Italy. The president serves as a point of connection between the three branches of power: he is elected by the lawmakers, he appoints the executive, he is the president of the judiciary and he is also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president nominates the Prime Minister, who proposes the other ministers (formally named by the president). The Council of Ministers must obtain a confidence vote from both houses of Parliament. Legislative bills may originate in either house and must be passed by a majority in both.

      A peculiarity of the Italian Parliament is the representation given to Italian citizens permanently living abroad (about 2.7 million people). Among the 630 Deputies and the 315 Senators there are respectively 12 and 6 elected in four distinct overseas constituencies. Those members of Parliament were elected for the first time in April 2006, and they have the same rights as members elected in Italy. The Italian judicial system is based on Roman law modified by the Napoleonic code and later statutes. The Supreme Court of Cassation is the court of last resort for most disputes. The Constitutional Court of Italy (Corte Costituzionale) rules on the conformity of laws with the Constitution and is a post-World War II innovation.

      Administrative divisions

      Italy is subdivided into 20 regions (regioni, singular regione). Five of these regions have a special autonomous status that enables them to enact legislation on some of their local matters; these are marked by an asterisk (*) in the table below. The country is further divided into 109 provinces (province) and 8,101 municipalities (comuni).

      Region Capital
      1. Abruzzo L'Aquila
      2. Aosta Valley* Aosta
      3. Apulia Bari
      4. Basilicata Potenza
      5. Calabria Catanzaro
      6. Campania Naples
      7. Emilia-Romagna Bologna
      8. Friuli-Venezia Giulia* Trieste
      9. Lazio Rome
      10. Liguria Genoa
      11. Lombardy Milan
      12. Marche Ancona
      13. Molise Campbasso
      14. Piedmont Turin
      15. Sardinia* Cagliari
      16. Sicily* Palermo
      17. Tuscany Florence
      18. Trentino- Alto Adige* Trento
      19. Umbria Perugia
      20. Veneto Venice

       

      Economic overview

      According to GDP calculations, Italy was ranked as the seventh-largest economy in the world in 2006, behind the United States, Japan, Germany, China, the United Kingdom, and France, and the fourth-largest in Europe. According to the OECD, in 2004 Italy was the world's sixth-largest exporter of manufactured goods. This economy remains divided into a developed industrial north dominated by private companies and a less-developed agricultural south. In the Index of Economic Freedom 2008 it ranked 64th of 162 countries, or 29th of 41 European countries, the lowest rating in the EU-15 and behind many ex-communist European countries. Italy has often been called a sick man of Europe, with governments having problems in pursuing reform programs.

      According to World Bank data, Italy has high levels of freedom to invest, do business, and trade. On the other hand, compared to other European countries, Italy has inefficient bureaucracy, relatively low property rights, heavy taxes, and heavy public consumption at around half of GDP. Italy has been in economic decline compared to most other EU-15 countries. Most raw materials needed by Italian industries, and more than 75% of energy requirements, are imported. Over the past decade, Italy has pursued a tight fiscal policy in order to meet the requirements of the Economic and Monetary Union and has benefited from lower interest and inflation rates. Italy joined the euro from its introduction in 1999.

      Italy is a member state of the European Union and part of its single market.Italy has a smaller number of world-class multinational corporations than other economies of comparable size. Instead, the country's main economic strength has been its large base of small- and medium-sized companies. Some of these companies manufacture products that are technologically moderately advanced and therefore face increasing competition from China and other emerging Asian economies which are able to undercut them on labour costs. These Italian companies are responding to the Asian competition by concentrating on products with a higher technological content, while moving lower-tech manufacturing to plants in countries where labour is less expensive. The small average size of Italian companies remains a limiting factor, and the government has been working to encourage integration and mergers and to reform the rigid regulations that have traditionally been an obstacle to the development of larger corporations in the country. Nevertheless, Italian industry is envied for its advanced design and style, which often capitalize on the country's formidable artistic patrimony.

      Italy's major exports are motor vehicles (Fiat Group, Aprilia, Ducati, Piaggio), chemicals, petrochemicals (Eni), electricity (Enel, Edison), home appliances (Merloni, Candy), aerospace and defense tech (Alenia, Agusta, Finmeccanica), and firearms (Beretta), but the country's more famous exports are in the fields of fashion (Armani, Valentino, Versace, Dolce & Gabbana, Roberto Cavalli, Benetton, Prada, Luxottica), food industry (Ferrero, Barilla Group, Martini & Rossi, Campari, Parmalat), luxury vehicles (Ferrari, Maserati, Lamborghini, Pagani) and motoryachts (Ferretti, Azimut).

      Also tourism is very important to the Italian economy: with over 43.7 million tourists a year, Italy is ranked as the fifth major tourist destination in the world.

      Foreign Relations

      Italy was a founding member of the European Community梟ow the European Union (EU). Italy was admitted to the United Nations in 1955 and is a member and strong supporter of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization (GATT/WTO), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the Council of Europe. Its recent turns in the rotating Presidency of international organisations include the Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE), the forerunner of the OSCE, in 1994; G8; and the EU in 2001 and from July to December 2003.

      Italy supports the United Nations and its international security activities. Italy deployed troops in support of UN peacekeeping missions in Somalia, Mozambique, and East Timor and provides support for NATO and UN operations in Bosnia, Kosovo and Albania. Italy deployed over 2,000 troops to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in February 2003. Italy still supports international efforts to reconstruct and stabilize Iraq, but it has withdrawn its military contingent of some 3,200 troops as of November 2006, maintaining only humanitarian workers and other civilian personnel. In August 2006 Italy sent about 2,450 soldiers to Lebanon for the United Nations' peacekeeping mission UNIFIL.

      Infrastructure

      The railway network in Italy, operated by Ferrovie dello Stato, totals 16,627 kilometres (10,331 mi), ranking the country 17th in the world. High-speed trains include ETR-class trains, of which the ETR 500 travels at 300 km/h (190 mph). The version ETR 500 Y1 achieved 355 km/h (221 mph) on the Milan-Bologna line on 1 March 2008.

      There are approximately 654,676 km (406,797 mi) of serviceable roadway in Italy, including 6,957 km (4,323 mi) of expressways. There are approximately 133 airports in Italy, including the two hubs of Malpensa International near Milan and Leonardo Da Vinci International near Rome. There are 27 major ports in Italy, the largest in Genoa, which is also the second-largest in the Mediterranean Sea after Marseille. Italy is traversed by 2,400 km (1,500 mi) of waterways.

      This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Metasyntactic variable".

       

       

      Top of page

      translation services for exporters

      site search by freefind
      Resources
      Overseas Trade Offices
      Embassies and Consulates
      Country Risk Evaluator
      Translators
      Currency Converter
      TARIC codes
      HS Classification
      SIC Codes
      Country Codes
      Airline Codes
      Airport Codes
      Port Codes
      Bilateral Chambers
      SA Missions Abroad
      Missions in SA
      International statistics

      ExportHelp

      Our sister sites:

      CountryHelp

      TradeTraining

      FreightForwarderHelp

      AssociationFinder

      LearnTheNet

       


      Disclaimer | Privacy Policy

      © Copyright Interactive Reality

               
      百老汇游戏平台网址